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Terms and Definitions
Viscosity– That property of a fluid or semi-solid substance characterized by resistance to flow and defined as the ratio of the shear stress to the rate of shear of a fluid element.
ISO Viscosity Grade System- A Classification for industrial lubricants based on the mid-point of a kinematic viscosity range in centistokes at 40°C. Eighteen range grades are defined from 2 to 1500 centistokes (cSt).
Viscosity index ( V I ) – An empirical number that indicates the effect of change of temperature on the viscosity of an oil. Tables are found in ASTM Method D 2270 . The higher the viscosity index, the smaller change in viscosity with temperature.
Absolute Viscosity– The ratio of shear stress to shear rate. It is a fluid’s internal resistance to flow. The common unit of absolute viscosity is the poise (see viscosity). Absolute viscosity divided by the fluid’s density equals kinematic viscosity.
HVI– High viscosity index; greater than 80 VI units and typically ranging above 90 .
LVI– Low viscosity index, typically below 40 VI units.
MVI– Medium viscosity index, typically ranging between 40 to 80 VI units.
Synthetic Lubricant- Lubricating fluid produced by chemically reacting materials of a specific chemical composition, by chemical synthesis of refining processes, to form a compound with planned and predictable properties.
Flash Point– Minimum temperature of a petroleum product or other combustible fluid at which vapor is produced at a rate sufficient to yield a combustible mixture that ignites momentarily in the presence of an ignition source (small flame). Standardized test procedures are defined under ASTM methods encompassing “closed cup and open cup criteria”. ASTM D-92 open cup/ASTM D-56 & D-93 closed cup.
Pour Point- The lowest temperature at which oil will pour or flow when it is chilled without disturbance under conditions defined under ASTM Method D 97
Compatibility- The capability of petroleum products to form a stable homogeneous mixture that neither separates nor is altered by chemical interaction.
Color- A non-quality visual identification characteristic of petroleum products. ASTM Method D 1500 incorporates empirical color comparisons by numerical value.